Neutrons are particles that make up the nuclei of atoms. They are also incredibly useful probes of matter, allowing scientists to understand how everyday materials are composed, and why they function the way they do.

In construction in Lund, Sweden, the European Spallation Source (ESS) is already set to be the world’s most brilliant source of neutrons when it opens to scientists in 2025.

HighNESS aims to take it a step further, with an upgrade design that will make it by far the world’s most intense neutron source. In particular, the upgrade will allow the ESS to generate strong pulses of so-called cold, very cold and ultra-cold neutrons, which are uniquely able to expose complex material behaviour, as well as the elusive behaviour of neutrons themselves.

Over three years, with €3m of Horizon 2020 funding, the eight partners of the HighNESS project will collaborate to: